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Electric current

发布日期:2024-04-24 09:26:56   浏览量 :952
发布日期:2024-04-24 09:26:56  

An electric current is a flow of charged particles,[1][2][3] such as electrons or ions, moving through an electrical conductor or space. It is defined as the net rate of flow of electric charge through a surface.[4]: 2 [5]: 622  The moving particles are called charge carriers, which may be one of several types of particles, depending on the conductor. In electric circuits the charge carriers are often electrons moving through a wire. In semiconductors they can be electrons or holes. In an electrolyte the charge carriers are ions, while in plasma, an ionized gas, they are ions and electrons.[6]

In the International System of Units (SI), electric current is expressed in units of ampere (sometimes called an "amp", symbol A), which is equivalent to one coulomb per second. The ampere is an SI base unit and electric current is a base quantity in the International System of Quantities (ISQ).[7]: 15  Electric current is also known as amperage and is measured using a device called an ammeter.[5]: 788 

Electric currents create magnetic forces, which are used in motors, generators, inductors, and transformers.[8][9] In ordinary conductors, they cause Joule heating, which creates light in incandescent light bulbs. Time-varying currents emit electromagnetic waves, which are used in telecommunications to broadcast information.

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